Question: How do I redirect output in Unix?

Just as the output of a command can be redirected to a file, so can the input of a command be redirected from a file. As the greater-than character > is used for output redirection, the less-than character < is used to redirect the input of a command.

How do I redirect output of a command in Unix?

Option One: Redirect Output to a File Only

To use bash redirection, you run a command, specify the > or >> operator, and then provide the path of a file you want the output redirected to. > redirects the output of a command to a file, replacing the existing contents of the file.

How do I redirect output in Linux?


  1. command > output.txt. The standard output stream will be redirected to the file only, it will not be visible in the terminal. …
  2. command >> output.txt. …
  3. command 2> output.txt. …
  4. command 2>> output.txt. …
  5. command &> output.txt. …
  6. command &>> output.txt. …
  7. command | tee output.txt. …
  8. command | tee -a output.txt.

How do you redirect output?

On a command line, redirection is the process of using the input/output of a file or command to use it as an input for another file. It is similar but different from pipes, as it allows reading/writing from files instead of only commands. Redirection can be done by using the operators > and >> .

How do I redirect standard output to a file?

Another common use for redirecting output is redirecting only stderr. To redirect a file descriptor, we use N> , where N is a file descriptor. If there’s no file descriptor, then stdout is used, like in echo hello > new-file .

Which command will transfer the content of multiple files?

The cat (short for “concatenate“) command is one of the most frequently used commands in Linux/Unix-like operating systems. cat command allows us to create single or multiple files, view content of a file, concatenate files and redirect output in terminal or files.

What is output redirection?

Output redirection is used to put output of one command into a file or into another command.

What is input and output redirection in Linux?

Input and output redirection is a technique used in order to redirect/change standard inputs and outputs, essentially changing where data is read from, or where data is written to. For example, if I execute a command on my Linux shell, the output might be printed directly to my terminal (a cat command for example).

What happens if I first redirect stdout to a file and then redirect stderr to the same file?

When you redirect both standard output and standard error to the same file, you may get some unexpected results. This is due to the fact that STDOUT is a buffered stream while STDERR is always unbuffered.

Which symbol should I use to redirect the error output to the standard output?

The regular output is sent to Standard Out (STDOUT) and the error messages are sent to Standard Error (STDERR). When you redirect console output using the “>” symbol, you are only redirecting STDOUT. In order to redirect STDERR you have to specify “2>” for the redirection symbol.

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